Fluorosamine Seen to Boost Remyelination in MS Mouse Model by Blocking Scarring Molecules

Fluorosamine Seen to Boost Remyelination in MS Mouse Model by Blocking Scarring Molecules

A substance called fluorosamine was seen to boost remyelination in mice by preventing the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and by promoting oligodendrocyte function. The findings showed that targeting molecules that block remyelination may be a promising therapeutic approach in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Upregulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans — large molecules consisting of a protein backbone decorated with sugars — are part of the scarring process after a demyelinating lesion occurs. High production of these molecules by astrocytic glial cells have also been linked to remyelination failure.

Researchers at the University of Calgary, Canada, have previously shown that proteoglycans block the maturation of oligodendrocyte cells, which are responsible for myelin production, preventing remyelination in animal models.

In the new study, An inhibitor of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis promotes central nervous system remyelination, the team investigated the properties of cultured oligodendrocytes exposed to the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, and teased out that negative charges present on the molecule interfere with adhesion of the cells, and that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans inhibited the process outgrowth (meaning the process that oligodendrocytes undergo to become fully functional: proliferation, migration, and subsequent maturation).

Since process outgrowth might be more relevant for myelination, researchers focused on finding a way to prevent proteoglycans from blocking this process, screening a medication library for drugs. But none of the 245 compounds analyzed could rescue an oligodendrocyte’s process outgrowth after exposure to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

The team instead focused on drugs that might reduce the synthesis of the proteoglycans, and discovered that the substance fluorosamine could indeed reduce such a synthesis. Researchers also determined that the activity of fluorosamine would be improved if the structure was somewhat modified.

Findings, published in the journal Nature Communications, further showed that when the team cultured oligodendrocytes together with fluorosamine and astrocyte cells that produce the proteoglycans, both adhesion and development of cellular processes improved.

Taking the research from the dish to animal models, the team then showed that fluorosamine both slowed demyelination and promoted remyelination. This, it found, could have been partly induced by the drug’s immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In an animal model of MS, known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), treatment with fluorosamine improved symptoms both at earlier and later disease stages.


  1. Darren says:

    I have MS and I was diagnosed in 2000. MS has been in existence for a number of years and millions of pounds/dollars (supposedly….) have been spent researching the disease. My concerns are, why there has been no definitive reason given for why MS occurs in the first place and, I read ‘break through’ reports regularly but I never read any reports on the next study conclusions in relation to these so called ‘break-through’ treatments. Additionally, time is not on the side of MS sufferers and yet the length of time it takes for any break-through drug to become available to the public is, in my opinion. a disgrace. My MS consultant has never referred me to any trials or studies despite me enquiring and showing my interest in finding a relevant treatment and dare I say, cure for MS. I am totally fed up with reading about advances in treatment and then never hearing about them again. Are we, who have this horrible, pathetic disease, “Cash Cows” for the pharmacy companies and the MS Consultants? I honestly feel that we are.
    A steering group, focus group made up of MS sufferers needs to be developed to work alongside the companies who are claiming to have ‘break-through’ treatments, to ask for their, informed opinions before publicising the results which amongst other things, offer hope to sufferers, which seems to be false hope generally. I’m not impressed with how this disease is treated. Unhappy and disgusted is more accurate. There should be more urgency and transparency given to developing affective treatment to combat MS. Do I think this will happen? I’m a very positive person so I hope that it does, but the realist in me says that it won’t.

    • David P says:

      I whole heartedly agree with your statements. I’ve had MS since 1984 and all they (the drs ) seem to do is put me through a checklist of drugs. And nothing is working they give me. they seem to be puppets of big pharm. They would rather prescribe me nothing if it isn’t proven (?) by big pharm than try and work with me. Its all a money game for them. I am convinced. I’ve been on LDN for over 4 years now with better results than anything the drs would prescribe. Yet I had to find a dr to prescribe it because most drs seem to laugh at it. I do believe that is because it is a generic drug and they can’t make their billions of dollars off it.Let them (the drs) think of it as a placebo but I am hear to tell you it is NOT. It may not be the answer but it is better than anything the drs have given me. And yes I am also getting tired of all these break throughs they speak of yet nothing new is coming out that works. And like you, I never seem to qualify for a trial anywhere. How can that be? They would rather give me nothing and send me to an end of life therapist than try something to keep me living. I am soooooo let down by the medical community. They are an embarrassment. They take all my money and give nothing back. And time is not on my side to wait for them to figure this out. I have been SPMS for over ten years now with no hope in the near future for me.

    • Reni says:

      This is exactly how i feel each and every day! my anger towards the Canadian medical system is so intense, I have zero trust with my “neurologist” at the St.Micheals MS Clinic here in Toronto, I do not trust these drug lords praying on our failure to beat MS by giving us small 24%-50% glimmers of hope to keep us going and growing their fat pockets full of money. Then we have these MS societies useless corporations urging people to run or walk for a cure for MS!! bull*&^$ the MS society would not exist without MS! the CEO of these Societies would be jobless. When have you heard that an “MS cure” is being researched?? never it will never happen, they will continue to pump our bodies full of useless drugs until we die or become complete vegetables. The problem is also because some people have very mild MS they do not feel the need to ever question our system. I have always wondered if these pharmaceutical CEO join together every now and then and just have a good laugh at all the “diseased lambs” with MS knowing fully that their drugs are mere jokes disguised as “promising treatments” with a ticket of $4000 a month! I know many are always shocked at me when I say I would rather have HIV then MS at least its treatable or Cancer because you either beat it or you pass on, but with MS it’s something new each day each minute! I can’t even enjoy summer anymore the anxiety of knowing that heat will just render me useless is something I think of everyday, not to mention the fatigue, weakness, numbness, pins and needles, burning sensations, “the MS hug” (cause you know MS wants to F$%^& hug you) and the list goes on and on. I do not believe they will ever cure MS there’s too much money to be made off of us weak cash cows.

      • Libbie says:

        Reni, in response to your statement “The problem is also because some people have very mild MS they do not feel the need to ever question our system.” I had mild MS for over 25 yrs, and this was exactly the reason I did question the system, or I should say the drugs that became available for relapsing/remitting MS. I would have relapses approx. every three to four years and would not have any lasting effects. Now, after 30 yrs, at 63, I’m still walking although I do have some fatigue and leg weakness. But, all those years that the drugs didn’t even exist, I was fine. If I was taking the drugs I possibly would have attributed my well-being to those drugs. I understand the decision to take drugs, but I agree with you and don’t trust the drugs or the companies that make them.

  2. Mario navarrete says:


    • brad says:

      have had it for 30 years started with Copaxone & now Tysabria. Very mobile gym every day. eat right. In good shape take ampyrai.
      Think positive. mediditate too, support from friends . it will be ok, bump in the road…………… EVERYONE has something.

  3. Libbie says:

    Can someone tell me what the difference is between the chondroitin sulfate mentioned in the article and the chondroitin sulfate that I take for arthritis in my knees? I’ve been taking it for about 12 yrs. Should I stop taking it?
    I’ve had MS since 1985, have never taken any of the mainstream MS drugs, only LDN for the last three years. I’m still walking and self sufficient, although I do have weakness in my left leg and a lot of fatigue that comes and goes.

    • Shasha says:

      Glucosamine and Chondriotin may help joints. I use it..doesn’t hurt me. Celiac diet..no gluten/dairy/soy/sugar/GMO…vitamins/good oils/minerals..probiotic…LDN ….detoxing help me. No food with a label helps me….has hidden gluten etc..

      • Libbie says:

        Sasha, thanks for the reply. I definitely think the glucosamine and chondroitin help with arthritis, I’m just wondering if chondroitin has any effect on MS. I do think that LDN has helped my MS – at least I haven’t gotten any worse in the last three years that I’ve been taking it. Still working on getting dairy and sugar out of my diet.

        • Shasha says:

          My MS is due to low oxygen in my brain due to gluten hurting my intestines so less nutrients absorb and then my cells are not made right to work right to burn oxygen. Chondriotin doesn’t affect my MS, but gluten/hidden gluten/dairy/soy/sugar/GMO and missing vitamins/good oils/probiotic/LDN…detoxing/Amour thyroid/Vit B12 methylcobalamin shot etc affects me. Best wishes.

        • Shasha says:

          Joints…no gluten/dairy/soy/sugar/GMO may lower swelling/inflammation. Vit C (from organic oranges) and Si may help connective tissues. LDN may help 99% of MS people. LDN is saving my life..helps my immune system work right and helps block hidden gluten. LDN keeps me ok…can’t stop it if I want to be ok. I take Osteoprocare instead of dairy. Dairy gave me seizures and irritable bladder. Sugar swells my brain/body and doesn’t let me sleep. I can eat low sugar fructose fruit now. Alpha lipoic acid/Oregon grape root, Mg, Cr help my blood sugar. Any food with a label hurts me..has hidden gluten etc. Nuts not sold in the shell/meat basting/some spices/certified gluten free may have hidden gluten. Gluten (wheat/barley/rye..oats/corn) hurts my gut lining so less nutrients absorb…then my cells are not made right to burn oxygen. My MS is due to low oxygen in my brain. I need Amour thyroid to raise oxygen burning in cell mitochondria. Zinc/Se/enough iron/probiotic…help T4 convert to T3 which is active thyroid hormone. I need bioidentical hormones…estriol/progesterone/testosterone. Raising progesterone lowers swelling/helps my energy and my blood sugar/immune system/sleep/thyroid medicine work. I recently have Lyme that swells me since my immune system is down due to Celiac. I need herbs/Far Infrared Sauna to kill the Lyme/coinfections. Antibiotics hurt my gut lining/hurt my mitchondria/lowered my immune system. Raising oxygen in many different ways…lowering swelling and inflammation/help mitochondria/exercise/unclog blood vessels with EDTA IV chelation/rebuild cells to absorb oxygen/heal my gut lining to absorb more nutrients to make the cells. I am glad you are trying hard. MS people can heal. Happiness….

    • Tom says:

      Anything new here? I too have been taking Glucosamine Chondroitin sulfate for 20 years and have MS with symptoms for the last 5 years. Is this the same chondroitin sulfate?

  4. Libbie Frank says:

    Hello Tom, I guess we won’t get an answer here, unfortunately. Maybe get in touch with the researchers at the University of Calgary. I was thinking of contacting the supplement manufacturers also, but I think that would probably be a dead end. It will be a long time before the general public will know if there is any danger in taking chondroitin sulfate.

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